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I、Basic information

Category: literature in plant

Chinese names: Lentinus edodes

Latin names: Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing

     Mushrooms, (scientific names: Lentinus edodes), also known as flower mushroom, sweet, vertebral mushroom, wild winter, thick with mushrooms, is a kind of edible fungi. General edible part of Lentinus, dehydration of fresh mushrooms into a dry mushrooms, easy to transport preservation, is an important goods. Dried and fresh mushroom widely used in Chinese cuisine. When cooking dried mushroom soaking water. Vegetarian delicacies, mushrooms often appears as a fresh.  In fast food, shiitake mushroom is also one of the most important raw material.

II、The morphological characteristics

      Solitary, clustered/cluster, medium big to larger entities.  Cap diameter 5-12cm, sometimes 20cm, hemispherical when young, later flat to slightly flattened, surface water chestnut, dark brown, light brown to dark cinnamon, often has dark scales in the middle and edge very dirty white hair or wool scale.

      Flesh white, slightly thick or heavy, dense, with flavor. Leaf margin involute, with white or yellow-white hair, disappeared with the growth. Cap veil below, after the rupture, form a complete loop.

      Lid margin against the volume after aging, cracking. Gills-white, dense, campylotropous, unequal. Stipe often just white, curved, long 3-8cm, coarsely 0.5-1.5 b cm, the loop has Cilia-like scales, fibers, solid inside. Loop disappears, white. Spore print white. Spores smooth, colorless, oval to ovoid, 4.5-7x3-4 μ m, reproductive spores.  Dikaryotic hyphae with clamp connection.


      Distribution environment: born on broad-leaved Woody in winter and spring, groups, scattered or solitary. 

      Distribution region: Shandong, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Henan, Anhui, Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi and Gansu.

IV、Value describes

      Mushrooms edible part 72%, 100g water content in edible parts of 13g, fat 54g 1.8g, carbohydrates, cellulose 7.8g, ash 4.9G, CA 124mg, p 415mg, Fe 25.3mg vitamin B2, vitamin B1, 0.07mg, 1.13mg, niacin 18.9mg. Apart from the water 85-90%, fresh mushrooms, solid crude protein 19.9%, fat 4%, soluble nitrogen-free 67%, CF 7%, ash 3%. Mushrooms are rich in vitamin d, and but little vitamin c, vitamin a deficiency and a former. 

      Lentinan can improve the vitality of the helper t-cells and boosting the body's immune function. Practice shows that broad range of mushrooms against cancer, has been used in clinical treatment. Mushrooms also contain a variety of vitamins and minerals to promote body metabolism, improve resilience has an important role. Mushrooms also diabetes, tuberculosis, infectious hepatitis, neuritis treatment purpose, and can be used for indigestion, constipation, weight loss, and so on. China recorded in ancient mushroom "qi is not hunger, wind breaks and blood yiwei help feed". Folk for helping induced by smallpox, measles, headache, dizziness. Modern studies have shown that lentinan which in the immune function of t-cell activity, reduces the ability of methylcholanthrene-induced tumor. Mushroom has a strong effect on cancer cells, inhibition of Sarcoma 180 in mice was 97.5%, inhibition of Ehrlich carcinoma was 80%. Mushrooms also contain double-stranded RNA, can induce interferon with antiviral capacity.

V、Nutrient analysis

      Mushroom is a high protein, low fat, polysaccharides, amino acids and vitamins of the fungus for food. 

      1. improve immune function: lentinan may increase the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophage in mice, and also promote the generation of t-lymphocytes and t lymphocytes, cytotoxic activity. 

      2. aging: the mushroom water extract on scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen peroxide has a certain effect on the body. 

      3. anti-cancer: the mushroom Cap part containing double-stranded structure of RNA, after entering the body, produces anti-cancer effect of interferon.

      4. lowering of blood pressure, blood lipid, blood cholesterol: mushrooms containing purine, choline, tyrosine, oxidizing enzymes and nucleic acid substance, can play a role in lowering blood pressure, lowering cholesterol and reducing blood lipid and prevent arteriosclerosis, liver cirrhosis and other diseases. 

      5. the mushrooms for diabetes, tuberculosis, infectious hepatitis, neuritis treatment purpose, and can be used for indigestion, constipation, etc.


      1. mushroom is also rich in dietary fiber, regular consumption can lower blood cholesterol and prevent atherosclerosis, prevention and treatment of stroke, heart disease, obesity and diabetes are effective. In recent years, the United States scientists found mushrooms contains a "Beta-glucosidase" experiments, which have considerably strengthened the body's anticancer effects, so people called the mushroom "cancer-fighting recruits." Mushrooms can cold virus, mushrooms contain an interferon inducer, induces production of interferon in the body and interfere with the synthesis of viral proteins, making it unable to breed, so as to make the body immune function. 

      2. the flavor components are mainly generated by acid decomposition of Lentinus edodes mushroom essence (lentionione). Mushrooms are an important food, medicinal mushroom and spices. Mushrooms fresh ingredients are a class of water-soluble substances, its main ingredient is 5 '-guanylic acid, 5 '-AMP, 5 '-UMP, component of nucleic acids, are included in 0.1%. Its flavor components are mainly generated by acid decomposition of Lentinus edodes mushroom essence. 

      3. mushroom with a molecular weight of 1 million of the antitumor components-----lentinan, contain cholesterol-lowering ingredient-----mushrooms is too raw, mushroom adenine and adenine derivatives, mushrooms also contain----------antiviral composition induced by interferon agent double-stranded RNA, is one of the rare health food. Mushrooms contain unsaturated fatty acids is very high, also contains large amounts of ergot can be transformed into vitamin d sterols and bacterial sterols to enhance resistance to disease and cold prevention and treatment have a good effect. 

      4. eating for prevention of human, especially infants caused by vitamin d deficiency of phosphorus, calcium metabolism disorders causing rickets useful, can prevent human skin and mucous membrane inflammation. 

      5. the mushrooms contained in mushrooms is too raw (lentysin) can prevent hardening of the arteries, can reduce a person's blood pressure, lowering serum cholesterol of isolated from the mushroom ingredients (C8H1104N5,C9H1103N5). 

      6. mushroom contains a lot of salt and other mineral elements in ash, is considered ideal to prevent acidic food poisoning food. 

      7. most carbohydrates were hemicellulose in the mushroom, the main ingredients are mannitol and trehalose sugars and bacteria (mycose), methyl glucose, pentosans, pentosans, and so on. 

      8. mushroom cold, slightly bitter taste, beneficial effect of liver and stomach. Ancient Chinese scholars have found mushrooms foods improve the function of brain cells. Such as Shen Nong's herbal classic suits in baited the fungus can be "wise" and "puzzle fun" records. Modern medicine, the intelligence role of mushrooms is rich in arginine and lysine, eat, fitness puzzle.

VII、Suitable for crowd

      Mushrooms contain purines, choline, tyrosine, oxidizing enzyme and nucleic acid materials, suitable for human consumption of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, can prevent hardening of the arteries, liver cirrhosis and other diseases. In addition, water extracts of Lentinus edodes mycelia can inhibit the absorption of herpes virus, herpes simplex virus, and it can prevent diseases caused by cytomegalovirus.

      Not eat mushrooms as "FA-Wu" cold dampness of spleen and stomach Qi and stubborn skin itches are unfit for human consumption.

VIII、Prevent Cold

      Mushroom are popular foods, it is a fungus, is the world's second-largest edible fungi. Mushrooms are grown in wood, known as "the King of the good," said, it has a high protein, low in fat, suitable for most people. Mushroom flesh white, slightly thick or heavy, dense, with flavor. 

      Mushrooms are nutritious and contain large amounts of protein and vitamins, the body was a great supplement. Mushrooms have therapeutic efficacy, the CAP part containing double-stranded structure of RNA, ribonucleic acid the body produces interferon, interferon has anti-cancer effects. Doctors found that eating mushrooms can increase the body's metabolism, make energetic, mushrooms contain high molecular weight polysaccharide, high molecular weight polysaccharides can enhance the body's immune system, which would help to prevent colds.

      According to the determination, mushrooms are rich in protein (protein), vitamins (vitamin food), linoleic (oil and food), acid and other nutrients, there are high levels of calcium (calcium), iron (iron foods), copper and other minerals, mushrooms also contain essential amino acids (amino acids). So, eat mushrooms to add nutrients, and can enhance the body's resistance to disease. The study also found that, Lentinus edodes mushrooms in RNA, could stimulate the production and release of interferon and interferon can eliminate the virus inside the body, strengthening the body's resistance to influenza virus. In addition, shiitake mushrooms in the purine has strong antiviral function.

IX、Improve immune of human

      United States Department of Agriculture's agricultural research service agronomist David Bloor Research: mushrooms contained a high molecular weight polysaccharides (HMWP), can improve the body's immune function. David Bloor is the experiment on a small farm in Arkansas found that mushrooms have this effect. 

      Other studies show that mushrooms contain another compound – eritadenine (also known as the red one purine) can reduce cholesterol levels. 

      Mushrooms contain 12 times times the antioxidant content of malt, is chicken livers 4 times. With Matsutake mushrooms and maitake (also known as Bayesian polypore, commonly known as chestnut mushroom cloud mushrooms, bacteria, Lotus), which lower blood pressure and stronger efficacy against cancer.

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