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I、Basic information and overview

Chinese literary name: Ju Zi (Orange)

Latin name: Citrus reticulata 

Nickname: Orange, tangerine

Location: the region of South latitude 35°, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, South of the Yangtze River, Hubei, Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan and Sichuan

Plant information: 

            "source": the fruit of Citrus reticulata rutaceae citrus. It is varieties. 

            "Alias": citrus, wide leather Orange, Mandarin orange, Huang Ju, red-orange, red robe, red Tangerine. 

            "Taste": flat, sweet, acid. 

            "Function": help produce saliva and slake thirst, moisten lungs and compose stomach

            "Orange peel" smell can be sober-minded, and use for medicine. 

      Ju ZI(Orange) and Gan Zi together are called Orange(citrus, tangerine), colorful, sweet and sour, it is one of the most common fruits in people's lives. Orange peel is color of orange, grainy flesh, thin peel package. Orange has thin peel and rich flesh, its juice is sweet and sour and delicious.

      Orange is sweet and sour, warm in nature, moisten the lungs and compose the stomach; with effect of appetizers and regulate the Qi, and quenching thirst &moistening lungs; attending chest across the junction and bitter feelings against eating, stomach-Yin of deficiency, thirst, Lung-heat cough and excessive drinking alcohol. Orange is also very rich in nutrients, one orange can almost meet the body's daily requirement of vitamin c content. And oranges contain more than 170 kinds of plant compounds and more than 60 kinds of flavonoids, most substances which are natural antioxidants. Oranges are rich in nutrients with lipid-lowering and anti-atherosclerosis effect, for prevention of cardiovascular disease is good. Orange juice contains a substance named "Nomilin" that has the ability to inhibit or kill cancer cells, have a preventive effect on gastric cancer. 

      Orange trees are evergreen small trees, approximately 3M high. It is white flowers, fragrant, solitary or in clusters in leaf axils, flowering time in May. Its fruit is oblate, diameter 5~7cm, orange-red and orange color, easy to rind peel, empty fruit center, ripe during Oct. to Dec. It likes sunshine, slightly to bear side shady, to grow leaves and flowers only if insufficient light, likes airy, warm weather, not resist cold with temperature not below than-9℃, but cold resistant than  Grapefruit, sweet Orange. It suitable to grow in loose, fertile, humus-rich, well-drained sandy loam soil, avoiding stagnant water, roots of mycorrhizal symbiosis. Trim resistance, annual shoot.

II、Geographical distribution

      The county of origin is China, mainly at the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and South of the Yangtze River. The Arabs spread orange throughout Eurasia continent, oranges are also known as "Chinese Apple" in the Netherlands and Germany so far. China orange is rich in resources, excellent variety, there are more than 4,000 years of history.

      Orange in the world is mainly distributed in the south of latitude 35° area.  There are 135 countries of the world to produce orange, ranks first class in the fruits, the first output is Brazil, second is United States, China is third with 10.78 million tons, and then followed by Mexico, and Spain, and Iran, and India, and Italy and other countries. 

      Orange distribution in China between north latitude 16 ° ~37 °, up to 2600 m above sea level (Batang, Sichuan), South of Sanya city, Hainan Province, and North to Shaanxi, Gansu, Henan, from Taiwan Province in the East, West to the Brahmaputra Valley in Tibet. Orange cultivation areas in China are mainly concentrated at a latitude of 20° ~33°, 700~1000 meters above sea level. There are 19 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) including Taiwan for national production area. Among of them, Quzhou, Zhejiang, Fujian, Hunan, Sichuan, Hubei, Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangxi, Chongqing and Taiwan are main 10 provinces (cities, districts), followed by Shanghai, Guizhou, Yunnan, Jiangsu and other provinces (municipalities). Shaanxi, Henan, Hainan, Anhui and Gansu provinces also have grown orange.

      Our Hanzhong local orange is famous with its unique flavor, the products not only meet the domestic market, but also exported to Japan, Korea, and other places in Central Asia.

III、Nutrition and value:

1. Oranges are rich in vitamin c and citric acid, which has the cosmetic and reduce fatigue effect.

2. Orange inside pellicle contains dietary fiber and pectin, can contribute to constipation and can lower cholesterol. 

3. Orange hesperidin can strengthen the toughness of capillaries, reduce blood pressure, dilate coronary artery of the heart, so it is food to prevent coronary heart disease and hardening of the arteries. Studies confirm that eating orange fruits can reduce the cholesterol deposits in the arteries and helps keep the reversal of atherosclerosis. 

4. In the fresh orange juice, there is a strong substance of anticancer activity named "nomilin", it can make the cancer-causing chemical decomposition, inhibit and block the growth of cancer cells, can raise the body's internal poison enzyme activity increased much more, prevent carcinogenic damage to nuclear, protect genes intact. 

5. Orange flesh, peel, channel, core, and leaf are medicine materials. Orange Peel, also known as “Chen Pi (Orange peel)”, is one of the most important drugs. Chinese < Compendium of Materia Medica> said that Orange peel "supplement with tonic; purging with the cathartic; The same drug effect occurred with different drug". Orange Peel is an important drug to regulate Qi, dispel dryness, favor wet, reduce phlegm, relieve cough, strengthen spleen and stomach; Orange epidermal peel after scraping white inner layer, called orange-red, has role of regulating lung gas, expectorant, relieving cough; The fascia on the orange flesh called Orange Channel, has the role of passing Meridian and elimination phlegm, can treatment chest stuffy, rib pain, rib neuralgia; Orange Core can treat backache pain and hernia pain; Orange Leaf has sparse liver role, can treat rib pain and the early mastitis; Orange Flesh has role of appetizer and regulate Qi, relieving cough, moistening lung. Eat Orange often, have a certain effect for treatment of acute and chronic bronchitis, old cough asthma, lack of body fluid, indigestion, wine injuries and polydipsia, chronic gastric diseases, etc.

IV、Medical efficacy

       In a study conducted by Canada researchers, one orange can almost meet the required daily amount of vitamin c in the human body. Oranges contain more than 170 kinds of plant compounds and more than 60 kinds of flavonoids, most substances are natural antioxidants. Studies have shown drinking orange juice of 750ml every day can be effective in improving lipid metabolism in patients with hypercholesterolemia, is beneficial to cardiovascular health.

       Chinese medicine believes that oranges have role of moistening lungs, relieving cough, reducing phlegm, strengthening spleen, regulating Qi, quenching thirst. It is excellent fruit for men, women, elderly and children (especially for elderly, patients with acute and chronic bronchitis and cardiovascular disease). The whole body of orange are treasures: not only of high medicinal value for its fruit, its peel, core, channel, leaf are "typical Chinese Drug". 

       Oranges contain lots of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), Malic acid, citric acid, vitamins, proteins, fats, dietary fiber and minerals. A new study of Australia scientific and industrial research institution shows that one orange a day can help people avoid certain cancers (such as the mouth, throat and stomach) attacks.

V、Six, customs and habit

       It is a popular custom of giving oranges each other as a gift for the Spring Festival in Guangdong Province in China. This custom is closely linked with the culture of the Chinese nation. In private, people is used to write (橘orange) to be(桔orange), (桔orange) and (吉Lucky) are similar to the words, spring season giving orange as a gift each other, wishing a good luck in the new year, so the little orange become people's amulet. In General, women will prepare some Tangerine (red orange) when go to the homes of friends and relatives for the happy new year, packed in basket as new year's gifts, and the return gift are also these things.

VI、Edible method

Shelling Peel and eating directly as raw food, or wring sweat liquid to drink.

VII、Matters needing attention

1.Stones caused by eating too many oranges 

Oranges have high water content, rich nutrients, containing more than 10 kinds of nutrients such as a lot of vitamin c, citric acid, glucose , etc. Eat properly, can benefit the body, especially for patients with chronic hepatitis and high blood pressure, eat Mandarin orange can improve the detoxification function of the liver, speed up cholesterol, prevent arteriosclerosis. Eating properly can increase appetite, but consumption of improper gains nothing.

2.Children should not eat much more oranges

Oranges are rich in carotene, if eating large amounts, like 500 grams each day for two months, there may be high carotene blood disease, characterized by hand and foot skin yellow dye, whole body may be associated, with nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue and other symptoms, sometimes easily confused with hepatitis. Carotene can transform to vitamin A in the liver, however a lot of carotene in pediatric liver can't be transformed in time, sediments throughout the body along with the blood, adverse reactions on the body. If some children eat too many oranges, it maybe occur as traditional Chinese medicine said "fire", like Glossitis, periodontal inflammation, sore throat, etc. Therefore, we believe that children don't eat much more orange. If eating a lot, should stop eating 1-2 weeks before you eat it. 

3.Should not eat orange before meal

It should be eating oranges after meal if you want to eat, it will have an impact on the stomach if eating oranges before meal. Organic acids contained in orange can irritate mucous membranes of the stomach wall, if eating on an empty stomach, there will be a burden for intestines.

4.Elderly people have to eat less oranges

Oranges are generally suitable for everyone to eating, but some elderly with weak function of stomach, kidney and lung, and deficiency cold of the spleen, would have to eat less orange, otherwise may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, lumbar debility.

5.Eating oranges should pay attention to the following points:

Controlling consumption. 

Don’t eat orange with carrots at same time. 

Don’t eat orange with milk at same time.

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